[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 1, Issue 1 (2016) ::
qaiie 2016, 1(1): 11-38 Back to browse issues page
The Role of Religious Orientation and Socio-economic Status in the Development of Moral Judgment in Teenage Students
Moslem Parto PhD *
Assistant Professor of Health Psychology, The Academy of Scientific Studies in Education , mparto2020@yahoo. com
Abstract:   (3552 Views)
 The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between
religious orientation and moral judgment, and also to investigate the role
of religious orientation and socio-economic status in the development of
moral judgment in teenage students. Method:  Method in this research is
descriptive. The population of this descriptive research includes male and
female students studying in schools of Tehran. On the whole, 613 students
(301 ones from the third grade of guidance school and 312 ones from the
third grade of high school) were selected by random multistage cluster
sampling. Two self-rating questionnaires including the Defining of Issues
Test (DIT) and the Religious Orientation Scale (ROS) were used. The
standard deviation of population scores were calculated in the Defining of
Issues Test (DIT) and the Religious Orientation Scale (ROS). The reliability
and validity of the questionnaires were approved by psychometric tests.
To analyze the data, we used the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test and
the correlation coefficient. Findings: The results showed that there is a
positive and significant relationship between intrinsic (internal) religious
orientation and extrinsic (external) religious orientation. However, no
significant relation was found between the religious orientation and moral 
judgment. In addition, the mean scores of moral judgment development 
were not significant at different levels of variables such as intrinsic religious
orientation, extrinsic religious orientation, and socio-economic status. 
Full-Text [PDF 676 kb]   (2034 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special- quantitative
Received: 2015/04/6 | Accepted: 2015/10/23 | Published: 2017/10/29
1. Adams, M.C. & Smith, M. (1996). Identity formation and religious orientation among high school students from the United States and Canada. Journal of Adolescence, 19, 247-261. [DOI:10.1006/jado.1996.0023]
2. Adler, N. E., & Rehkopf, D. H. (2008). U. S. disparities in health: Descriptions, causes, and mechanisms. Annual Reviews of Public Health, 29, 235- 252. [DOI:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090852]
3. Ahmadi, V., Davoudi, I., Mardani, M., Ghazaei., & ZareZadegan, B. (2013). The relationships among moral development, religiosity and religious orientation in students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84 , 674 – 678. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.624]
4. Allport, G. W. (1950). The individual and his religion. New York: MacMillan. Atkins.
5. Allport, G. W., & Ross, J. M. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 432- 443. [DOI:10.1037/h0021212]
6. Bradley, R. H. , & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 371- 399. [DOI:10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135233]
7. Burrage, M. S., Ponitz, C. C., McCready, E. A., Shah, P., Sims, B. C., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2008). Age- and schooling-related effects on executive functions in young children: A natural experiment. Child Neuropsychology, 14(6), 510- 524. [DOI:10.1080/09297040701756917]
8. Caravita,S. C. S., Giardino, S., Lenzi, L., Salvaterra, M., & Antonietti, A. (2012). Socio- economic factors related to moral reasoning in childhood and adolescence: The missing link between brain and behavior. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6:262. doi: 10. 3389/fnhum. 2012. 00262.
9. Cottone, J. G., Drucker, P., & Javier, R. (2007). Predictors of moral reasoning: components of executive functioning and aspects of religiosity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 46(1), 37– 53. [DOI:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2007.00339.x]
10. Duriez, B. (2003b). Religiosity, moral attitudes and moral competence. A research note on the relation between religiosity and morality. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 25(1), 210–221. [DOI:10.1163/157361203X00156]
11. Duriez, B., & Soenens, B. (2006). Religiosity, moral attitudes and moral competence: A critical investigation of the religiosity–morality relation. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31 (1), 75–82. [DOI:10.1177/0165025406062127]
12. Ensminger, M. E., & Fothergill, K. E. (2003). A decade of measuring SES: What it tells us and where to go from here. In M. H. Bornstein & R. H. Bradley (Eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting and child development (pp. 13- 27). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.
13. Evans, G. W. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist, 59(2), 77- 92. [DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.59.2.77]
14. Fontaine, J. R. J., Duriez, B., Luyten, P., & Hutsebaut, D. (2003). The internal structure of the Post-Critical Belief scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 501–518. [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00213-1]
15. Glover, R. J. (1997). Relationships in moral reasoning and religion among members of conservative, moderate, and liberal religious groups. The Journal of Social Psychology, 137, 247–254. [DOI:10.1080/00224549709595435]
16. Gorsuch, R. L. (1984). The boon and bane of investigating religion. American Psychologist, 39, 228–236. [DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.39.3.228]
17. Gross, R. D. (1999). Psychology the science of mind and behaviour. (2nd ed.). London: Hodder & Stoughton.
18. Huitt, W., & Dawson, C. (2011). Social development: Why it is important and how to impact it. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/socdev.pdf
19. Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Shah, P. (2011). Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(25), 10081- 10086. [DOI:10.1073/pnas.1103228108]
20. Keljo, K. , & Chiristenson, T. (2003). On the relation of morality and religion: Two lessons from James's varieties of religious experience. Journal of Moral Education, 32(4), 385- 396. [DOI:10.1080/0305724032000161286]
21. Klingberg, T. (2010). Training and plasticity of working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14(7), 317- 324. [DOI:10.1016/j.tics.2010.05.002]
22. Kohlberg, L. (1969). Stage and sequence: The cognitive developmental approach to socialization. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research (pp. 347–380). Chicago: Rand McNally.
23. Morgan, S. P. (1983). A research note on religion and morality: Are religious people nice people? Social Forces, 61, 683–692. [DOI:10.1093/sf/61.3.683]
24. Noble, K. J., Norman, M. F., & Farah, M. J. (2005). Neurocognitive correlates of socioeconomic status in kindergarten children. Developmental Science, 8(1), 74- 87. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2005.00394.x]
25. Rest, J. R. (1974). The hierarchical nature of moral judgment. Journal of Personality, 41, 86–109. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1973.tb00662.x]
26. Sachdeva, S., Singh, P., & Medin, D. (2012). Culture and the quest for universal principles in moral reasoning. International Journal of Psychology, 46(3), 161- 176. Sapp, G. L., & Gladding, S. T. (1989). Correlates of religious orientation, religiosity, and moral judgment. Counseling and Values, 33(2), 140- 145. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-007X.1989.tb00753.x [DOI:10.1080/00207594.2011.568486]
27. Schlafeli, A. , Rest, J. R., & Thomas, S. J. (1985). Does moral education improve moral judgment? A meta - analysis of intervention studies using the defining issues test. Review of Educational Research, 55(3), 319-352. [DOI:10.3102/00346543055003319]
28. Sirch, L. (1994). The relationship of spirituality to religious orientation. University of Virginia(0246). Degree: PHD
29. Skitka, L. J., Bauman, C. W., & Lytle, B. L. (2009). Limits on legitimacy: Moral and religious convictions as constraints on deference to authority. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(4), 567–578. [DOI:10.1037/a0015998]
30. Spilka, B., Kojetin, B., & MCIntosh, D. (1985). Forms and measures of personal faith: Question, correlates and distinctions. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 24,437-442. [DOI:10.2307/1385997]
31. Teymoori, A., Heydari, A., & Nasiri, H. (2014). Relationship between dimensions of religiosity, authoritarianism, and moral authority. Social Compass, 61(1), 92– 107. [DOI:10.1177/0037768613514320]
32. Trimble, D. E. (1997). The religious orientation scale: Review and meta- analysis of social desirability effects. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 57(6), 970-986. [DOI:10.1177/0013164497057006007]
33. ____________ (2000). Intrinsic / extrinsic religious measurement. I/E - Revised.
34. Wulff, D. M. (1991). Psychology of religion: Classic and contemporary views. New York: Wiley.
Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Parto M. The Role of Religious Orientation and Socio-economic Status in the Development of Moral Judgment in Teenage Students. qaiie. 2016; 1 (1) :11-38
URL: http://qaiie.ir/article-1-22-en.html

Volume 1, Issue 1 (2016) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه علمی پژوهشی مسائل کاربردی تعلیم و تربیت اسلامی Quarterly Journal of Applied Issues in Islamic Education
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.03 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4319
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)